post by : Vomsattel Joel
Jugendliche verbringen ihre Ferien in der heutigen Zeit lieber in einem All-inclusive Hotel anstatt auf dem Camping. Seit Jahren sind die Zahlen von Jugendlichen auf Campingplätzen rückläufig. Seit jüngster Zeit gibt es nun unterschiedliche Projekte die zum Ziel haben, die Jugendlichen wieder vermehrt für den Campingurlaub zu begeistern. Mit ausgefallenen Designs und moderner Ausstattung soll dieses Ziel erreicht werden.
post by : Bieri Karin
Im Geschäftstourismus hat man wenig Spielraum im Bezug auf die Wahl des Zielorts und der Zeitplanung. Es entscheiden zum Beispiel der Standort der Unternehmung, ein bestimmter Kongress oder Konferenz... Geschäftsreisende geben aber generell mehr Geld aus für ihre Reisen als im Freizeittourismus. Der Geschäftstourismus ist weniger preissensitiv als der Freizeittourismus. Daher haben auch Wirtschaftskrisen oder zum Beispiel der starke Franken wenig Einfluss auf den Geschäftstourismus. Der Weltwirtschaft geht es im Moment besser, daher wird auch eine steigende Nachfrage bei den Geschäftsreisenden erwartet. Zum Beispiel Kanada und Amerika erwarten im Jahr 2015 einen Anstieg des Geschäftstourismus um ca. 3 bis 4%. Folglich werden auch die Hotel- und Flugpreise ansteigen.
post by : Diebold Charlotte
Vorurteil Schweiz, teuerste Destination von Europa?
Jedermann hat das Gefühl, dass die Schweiz die teuerste Destination von Europa ist. Das Gegenteil beweist jedoch eine Studie von dem französischen Reise-Portal Allovoyges. Verbier führt die Liste der Top 20 an, jedoch befinden sich unter den restlichen Top 10 nur Skigebiete aus Österreich und Frankreich.
Chinesische Touristen – Ein Zukunftsmarkt?
China hat sich bereits zum weltweit drittgrössten Quellmarkt für den Tourismus entwickelt. Für einige Tourismusregionen sind die Chinesen bereits die wichtigste Zielgruppe. Viele Skigebiete in der Schweiz setzen neu auf den chinesischen Markt, indem sie Chinesen zu Skilehrer ausbilden.
post by : Pottier Sonny
Beirman, David (2003), Restoring Tourism Destinations in Crisis: A Strategic Marketing
Approach, Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Since many years, a lot of events have caused fear for the people who are now afraid to travel in a lot of destinations. For example, the terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington on September 11, and, just one year later the murder of almost 200 tourists in Bali have unfortunately symbolised a kind of association between tourism and political crisis.Over the years, the International Air Transport Company has developed plans for crisis communication in events like crashes, etc, which are very effective.But the DMO (destination marketing organisations) have not developed these plans, and are trying now to do it. These restoring strategies are very important because tourism, which is a very important part of activity in several countries, need to be maintained. This process is very long and complicated and needs several steps. Firstly, the DMO needs to analyse if the destination is a “crisis destination” or a “tourism hazard”. In order to know that, they use a system called “Destcon”, created by the US Military.Secondly, before starting to advertise the destination, they need to care about the post crisis restoration priorities (infrastructure reconstructions, medical treatment). In this article they used eleven case studies with different problems in order to study how each DMO have dealt with the crisis. (September 11, terrorism in Egypt, Turkey and the Izmit Earthquake, Croatia after the Yugoslav Federation’s war,…). The best DMO of the case studies were Turkey, Fiji and Egypt because they demonstrated a clear marketing plan. They also were well co-ordinated with the Airlines, Hotels, tour operators and others attractions. This is very important. And in addition to that, the governments have played a very involved and supportive role. Thanks to that, these destinations experienced a fast and full recovery.The medias also play a important role for a tourism destination because if you read an article about a crisis in a country, you will automatically avoid this destination. That is why the DMO have to work with the media to inform them well and control what is said. An important tool today for the DMO is the websites, which address and anticipate the questions and concerns of the people.
Pottier, Sonny - 702_e (2015)
- Article about the marketing strategy in the crisis destination
post by : Burkhard Danielle
Butler, R. W. (1991). Tourism, Environment, and Sustainable Development. Environmental Conservation, 18, 201-209. DOI: 10.1017/S0376892900022104.
Paying more attention to the development in touristic destinations and their surrounding areas has become a more and more important subject (Butler, 1991). This trend started when the awareness of being sustainable appeared, when tourism was often accused as having one of the largest impacts on the environment. However, the tourism needs the environment to perform well. Even though all touristic regions use environmental resources, some have not taken it into account when they developed their resorts. For many touristic destinations, it became difficult to change something because the costs and the impact on the economy in those destinations would be too heavy. However, for those that are just starting to be attractive for tourists and are now developing their strategies it is the opportunity to learn from the mistakes of the others and consider the environment. Touristic destinations that exist for some time have four different solutions to solve their problems: They can diminish the number of tourists coming to the destination or they can limit it before there are too many. Both of those solutions will be very difficult to fulfill, because most people are traveling to where they want and when they want. Making those restrictions or changes can have a huge impact on the people willing to travel to the area. It would also be a problem to make the local population agree on those solutions.While a lot of destination are attracting mass tourism, which are mostly to blame for all the damages done to the environment, the destination can decide to attract only people that are interested in alternative tourism and that care about the environment. The downside of this solution is that many people who travel today will not be able to pay for that way of travelling.By making the resources that the destination is offering, like archeological areas, more resistant for the damage done by tourist, it might be possible to fewer the impacts on the environment. E.g. you cannot go visit the inside of Stonehenge because there is now a way around it which helps the historical place to not be affected by the tourists.The last solution to change the impact that tourism has on the environment is to educate not only the companies, governments, touristic regions, but also the tourists. It would be possible to do so by teaching them how to be sustainable in the long run and how to develop that. The education of the tourists needs to take place in their places of origin and not at the touristic destination. In this way, they will improve their knowledge about how to take care of the environment and how to travel sustainable. Overall, being a destination that attracts mass tourism you need to be aware of the impacts that it has on the environment and on how to keep them as low as possible. On the other hand, for destinations like Switzerland that are attracting the wealthier tourists and value quality over quantity, they have to make the local population and the government aware of the best regulations for the tourism destination. The most important part is that people become aware that tourism is as important as any other industrial sector and can have a huge influence on the economy of a country.
post by : Eggen Lars
Plog, S. C. (1974). Why destination areas rise and fall in popularity.
The travel industry grew remarkably in the past century and became the largest industry in the world. But not all destinations in particular followed that trend. Many destinations who used to be very attractive and successful nowadays struggle to get enough visitors. Plog (1974), talks about the rise and the fall of the popularity of touristic areas and where it comes from. There has already been an article on the same topic from the author, but he sought to refine and revise the concept, because oft he importance for the actors in the travel and tourism industry to understand the psychological factors influencing travel behaviour - why some do and others never do travel - to be able to give useful advice to the actors.There are two main concepts which help us to illustrate why this rising and falling happens. Those are the psychographic profile of travelers and the tourism life cycle.First we need to know about the psychographic profile of travelers. On one side we have the so called Dependables, which are highly psychocentric. On the other side we find the so called Venturers, which are highly allocentric. In short and simplified, the Dependables are the very introverted, safety-seeking, unadventurous travelers. The Venturers are the complete opposite, thus extroverted, risk-taking, adventurous travelers. Dependables generally do travel not at all or much less than their opposing group, the Venturers. Important to mention is the correlatin between the type of traveler somebody is and the destination this person chooses. The destination life-cycle follows the same pattern; 1. Birth 2. Maturity 3. Old age 4. Decline Plog (1974). The key point is, that these stages correspond to the psychografic groups of travelers. Birth would belong to Venturers and decline to Dependables (in between are the near-Venturers and the near-Dependables). Again, the link and the correlation between these two concepts is the key. In consequence, resorts start to get visited by Venturers and end up declining by being visited by Dependables. The more the popularity rises the more Dependables will come, which will lead to decline. The author says that the challenge for touristic destinations is to try to stay in the early adulthood - somewhere between birth and maturity, somewhere in the middle of the near-Venturer segment- of the life cycle, as this stage attracts the greatest number of near-Venturers and thus is the ideal to achieve.To achieve that objective, destinations need to try to maintain their appeal by not letting growth get out of hand. Because uncontrolled doesn’t attract Venture-type travelers. As time goes on more and more packages will be offered, escorted tours will be organized and so on. This are clearly things that will attract more and more Dependables.Consequently, destinations need to position themselves properly towards the customers. Two things are needed for that: 1. Stick to the true quality of the destination 2. Perception of the destination by the public. People in charge need to recognize the importance of the things that brought people to their place and continue to invest - not specifically in a monetary way – in those assets and, also in the other qualities with potential. There are exceptions to this rule, but it is generally very difficult to reverse the life cycle and get away from decline. Thus, in conclusion, the tourism industry as a whole needs to be aware of the two concepts and how they influence each other, to make sure that decline will not be a problem for the industry. We can’t be sure that the sector continues growing eternally, if they don’t pay attention decline will almost certainly follow.
post by : Jeanloz Leon
Ashley C., Boyd C., Goodwin H. (2000) « PRO-POOR TOURISM : PUTTING POVERTY AT THE HEART OF THE TOURISM AGENDA », Natural Resource Perspectives, N°51
Keywords: Wages coming from employment ; Global earnings from selling goods and services ; Collective income
Ashley et al. (2000) assess the different impacts of tourism on areas, people and landscapes. Its main point is about how tourism has not yet clearly included poverty elimination purposes in the tourism agenda, and how we could manage to incorporate this goal in the positive impacts of tourism on poor countries, while reducing the negative ones ! That is what we call Pro-Poor tourism. National governments usually promote the macro-economic growth and the investments in the private sector (the tourism investments come mainly from national companies, which repatriates most of the time the benefits to the metropolitan centers) without taking the needs and the opportunities that tourism has to offer to the poor into consideration. In order to change that, it is first of all important to know that Pro-Poor tourism does not simply mean setting up resorts in third world countries. Indeed, we must be aware that the local population does not have to compete for the use of local resources, because they must be fairly shared in order to increase net benefits to the poor. In addition to that, by enhancing the existing touristic strategies and infrastructures, instead of investing in them, the citizens can maximize their returns. It is now important to emphasize that tourists do not only come to the destination, but stimulate the local economy by consuming local goods and services. As it has been previously said, the point is not about creating a mass tourism resort in the third world countries, but to create a sufficient flow of money, in order to be able to focus on other important issues such as local people social issues, and the conservation of the cultural, wildlife and landscape value. By this way, we would be able to create a sustainable tourism that would benefit to everyone. Indeed, it would create (which means financial) opportunities for lots of local people ; the guiding profession for instance, is a good example of a well-paid job that can bring financial security to a family! Thus, lots of parents could afford paying the school fees to their childrens, instead of sending them to work. It is indeed clear, that tourism is able to provide serious assets and opportunities to local people, as well as lots of positive impacts in livelihood goals (health, education, financial safety). But not only that, this article proposes and highlights different ways of enhancing economic opportunities by increasing the poor people’s participation. We know that economic participation depends mainly on two factors : the human and financial capital. That means that in order to be able to bring their contribution to their own touristic economy, local poor people would have to be trained on dealing with the tourist expectations, as well as English speaking. Setting up strategies adapted to each national policy would be an essential part of the process as well. The area of Bali (Indonesia) gives a pretty good example, because most restaurants are leaded by families or voluntary associations with a distinctive division of work and revenue, in order to give a fair share to every members. However, Pro-Poor tourism encounters significant obstacles : a lack of funds for its application, a lack of organisation or just the distance that separates people from tourism sites are just a few examples. A loss of control over the use of resources would have devastating effects on the local economy, as well as on the individual. That is why Pro-Poor strategies must be effectively and fairly led!
post by : Straehler Uli
Sigala, M., & Kyriakidou, O. (2015). Creativity and innovation in the service sector. The Service Industries Journal, 35(6), 297-302.
Creativity and innovation are two concepts that until nowadays we don’t fully understand. It has been agreed as general definitions that the former is related to the production of ideas and the latter concerns the implementation of ideas. However, experts still struggle to give a rational explanation of both processes. Therefore, it has been observed that technological advances as well as market changes foster the implementation of innovative ideas and shows us the urgency of finding ways to apply the theoretical concepts in the industry. Nowadays it is recognised that creativity and innovation are multidisciplinary processes. Meaning that creativity doesn’t happen only due to personal features but also by interacting with other people and contexts. Our imagination is stimulated by our environment and our actions. This highlights the value of networking and learning background in the creation of new ideas. In addition of that, it is from the utmost importance to put innovation and creative at the heart of organisation by building your work processes on the following four principles: Defining jobs: This first rule refers to being able to recognise which are the obstacles and how to solve them, rather than applying standard solutions. For this collaborating with other experts and staying mindful of the system of the task in preference to focusing on a single aspect of it. Grouping jobs into work units: Secondly, work should grouped in order to make profit in a specific market (business unit). Integrating the differentiated units: In order to complement the previous rule, task should be approached by several people who understand the problematic in similar ways. This leads the group to more reactivity in case of unexpected issues. Controlling the whole system over time: Finally, controls have to be set with regard to maintain the development of innovations. Hence, should workers should feel responsible for the larger goal rather than only for their parts and also make knowledge as accessible as possible to other colleagues. As a conclusion, this paper explains the challenges that companies face while trying to boost their creativity and become more innovative. It summarizes the different actual theories and try to build a model that entrepreneurs of the service industry could follow.
post by : Salamin Eliza
Barton, S. (2008). Healthy Living in the Alps: The Origins of Winter Tourism in Switzerland, 1860-1914. Manchester University Press.
Healthy living in the Alps explains the correlation between the medical research to relieve the pain of tuberculosis and the developement of winter sports in alpine resorts in the mid 19th century until 1914. The development of Swiss resorts such as Davos, St Moritz, Arosa, Leysin and Grindelwald had been analysed to develop this theory. The importance of the Great Britain is also raised in this article. Before the arrival of the penicilin (antibiotic to treat infectious diseases) in 1940, conventional medicine had no remedy against respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis. It was a serious matter that affects all sections of the society. This is why, around 1860, European physicians had no choice than sending their patients in the Alps, where they thought the climate, thin and clear, would offer some kind of relief and might even kill the disease. Switzerland, first considered as a transit point to go in Italy, became therefore known on the European health map. Her reputation for high altitude long-term treatments, in summer and winter attracted better-off patients. It should be noticed that not only swiss invested in the medical field but also dutch and british people. They helped to develop resorts. The treatments included spa, fresh air and exercise and sport activities were part of their cure regime. To be occupied, their healthy family and friends took part as well at their outdoor activities. Thanks to them, resorts had to developped their sport activities. Clubs for ice skating, curling, sledging, tobogangging came up with the arrival of British in the resorts. Ski appeared in Switzerland in 1875 and became the key activity but no ski lifts were built until 1930. As number of healthy visitors grew each year attracted by growing sporting centres, a real issue raised amongst the resorts : Are the sick still good for business ? Effectively visitors had fear of contagion when coming across patients coughing in the streets. Resorts came up with different solutions. One solution was to separate hotels and clinics with restricted access, the other was to deter the sick to come in their resorts : for example St Moritz claimed that the south winds were bad for lungs and Grindelwald said that their latitude was lower than the other resorts and then less effective. But actually most of the swiss alpine resort kept going on serving healthy as well as unwell clientele. In conclusion, we can understand how winter tourism is closely linked with health treatments in Switzerland by looking back in Swiss history. Swiss resorts attracts both wealthy clientele unwell or fit. It is then important to have infrastructure up to their expectations. Tourism industry should always have this in their minds when developing a resort, thinking of who the customers are and what are their needs.
post by : Noël Barnabé
Lemelin, H., Dawson, J., Stewart, E. J., Maher, P., & Lueck, M. (2010). Last-chance tourism: The boom, doom, and gloom of visiting vanishing destinations.Current Issues in Tourism, 13(5), 477-493.
The Great Barrier Reef, the Everglades of Florida, the ice cap on Mount Kilimanjaro or the Maldives are all vanishing destinations. Some travel agencies and tour operators decided to use the vulnerability of these destinations to attract more consumers who want to see these places one last time before they disappear. This concept is called “last-chance tourism”; it is a niche tourism market where tourists explicitly seek vanishing landscapes or seascapes, and/or disappearing natural and/or social heritage. Promoting last-chance tourism can be a double edged sword. Indeed, tour operators will benefit economically from last-chance tourism in the short to medium term but the irony lies in the fact that long-haul air travel is often necessary to reach these remote locations and this means that tourists are accelerating negative impacts through the release of Greenhouse gas emissions. In other words, its success will eventually cause the destruction of the attraction. In 2009, a study examined empirically last-chance tourism in the Arctic in 2007 and found evidence that the majority of individuals travelling to Churchill, Canada for the purpose of viewing polar bears were strongly motivated by the stated vulnerability of the species and indicated that they wanted to see the bears before they disappear forever. In this context, the warming of the Arctic has provided operators with an opportunity to market their products as last-chance tourism and has contributed to a boom in tourism as travelers rush to see regions before polar ecosystems are irrevocably transformed. Natures doom is tourism’s boom. The polar bear industry evolved from a few vehicles and operators in the 1970s to the current infrastructure, which includes two main operators managing 18 vehicles and two tundra lodges, along with two helicopters companies. This is a strong market and the demand is not likely to decline in the short term. However, the long-term sustainability of this industry is precarious at best. The short boom from the doom tourism will, according to most long-term climate change predictions, end up in gloom. Among the polar bear viewing tourists there is a general understanding that humans play a role in influencing a changing climate and that polar bears will feel the impact of change. Even though, only a few people interviewed expressed their concerns regarding the polar bears. The majority would be motivated to visit the Arctic region and would also be willing to pay more in the future even if they would be able to view only a quarter of the number of bears they actually saw on a 2007 visit. If they were not guaranteed to see any bears of if the polar bear populations were to appear unhealthy, they would still visit the Churchill region. They would only stop if there were no bears anymore. Critics of last-chance tourism point out that while most of these trips are marketed as environmentally aware and eco-sensitive, they have little to do with sustainable tourism and relate more with “ego-tourism” and hyper-consumption. There is an absence of any discussion relating to sustainability, carbon footprint or socio-ecological justice in last-chance tourism. However, the emergence of this type of travel may bring opportunities such as the promotion of responsible tourism and numerous ethical questions that require immediate consideration. One of the most immediate one is the appropriateness of profiting in the short term from disappearing, dying, vanishing or irreversibly changed landscapes and species. Some destinations may opt to minimize visitor numbers by continually raising entry costs or by charging additional taxes. Additionally, the social contributions that travelers put back into the communities they visit may be considered before being granted visitation rights to a particular destination. The greatest contribution of last-chance tourism may be the creation of climate change ambassadors. Last-chance tourism, from this perspective, provides a unique opportunity to nurture environmental awareness for visitors to realise that they are the potential saviours of nature, not inevitably its enemy.